NEW

Research: Medical Instrument Processing Personnel May Be Exposed to Tissue, Blood and Patient Fluids Despite PPE

“This pilot documented substantial splashing and droplet dispersal during manual cleaning of medical instruments, and personnel got wet even though they were wearing all the recommended PPE,”

New Scrubs Made of Bacteria-Killing Textile

Livinguard, a Swiss-based leader in self-disinfecting hygiene technology, has launched an apparel line of permanent self-disinfecting scrubs, underscrubs and lab coats utilizing its EPA-registered bacteria-killing textile. Livinguard scrubs, that continuously...

Finnish Startup Surgify Shares New Bone Cutting Technology

Finnish startup Surgify – that recently launched an all-new and innovative surgical technology that allows surgeons to perform surgical operations on bones faster and safer – has seen its first use cases on patients, according to a news release. The first surgeries...

The Four Assumptions of Nursing Competency

Certificates have long been used to signify accomplishments such as earning a credential like CNOR or CNAMB. But significant changes in documentation and verification processes are on the horizon.

Study Shows Children Recycle Brain Regions When Acquiring New Skills

Scientists studied the brain activity of school-aged children during development and found that regions that activated upon seeing limbs (hands, legs, etc.) subsequently activated upon seeing faces or words when the children grew older. The research, by scientists at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, reveals new insights about vision development in the brain and could help inform prevention and treatment strategies for learning disorders. The study was funded by the National Eye Institute and is published in Nature Human Behaviour.

“Our study addresses how experiences, such as learning to read, shape the developing brain,” said Kalanit Grill-Spector, Ph.D., a professor at Stanford University’s Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute. “Further, it sheds light on the initial functional role of brain regions that later in development process written words, before they support this important skill of reading.”

Grill-Spector’s team used functional MRI to study areas in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) that are stimulated by the recognition of images. About 30 children, ages 5 to 12 at their first MRI, participated in the study. While in the MRI scanner, the children viewed images from 10 different categories, including words, body parts, faces, objects and places. The researchers mapped areas of VTC that exhibited stimulation and measured how they changed in intensity and volume on the children’s subsequent MRI tests over the next one to five years.

Results showed that VTC regions corresponding to face and word recognition increased with age. Compared to the 5- to 9-year-olds, teenagers had twice the volume of the word-selective region in VTC. Notably, as word-selective VTC volume doubled, limb-selective volume in the same region halved. According to the investigators, the decrease in limb-selectivity is directly linked to the increase in word- and face-selectivity, providing the first evidence for cortical recycling during childhood development.

“The loss of limb-selective volume surprised us,” said first author Marisa Nordt, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Grill-Spector’s lab. “This challenges a theory of cortical development, which states that new representations, like emerging regions involved in word recognition, are sculpted on previously uncommitted cortex. Our study suggests that during childhood, cortical selectivity can change from one category to another.”

The study authors suggest that cortical recycling in VTC likely reflects adjustments to changing visual demands during childhood. For example, infants tend to look at faces. As they grow into toddlers and learn language, they are exploring objects and deciphering gestures. Word recognition becomes increasingly important as children learn to read.

In future studies, Grill-Spector and colleagues will explore whether decreases in limb-selective VTC volume have behavioral implications, asking if deviations from observed trends have bearing on development disorders.

This research was supported by the National Eye Institute (EY022318, EY020485, and F31EY027201) with additional funding from the National Science Foundation (DGE-114747) and the German National Academic Foundation (NO 1448/1-1).

Previous

Next

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

X